Дарственная с обременением: ограничения и риски

Дарственная с обременением: ограничения и риски

Сделки с недвижимостью чреваты массой сложностей, которых хватает и при простой регистрации права собственности, и при оформлении наследства. Но иногда получить квартиру можно только путем дарения с обременением. Этот способ позволяет получить жилье, но не пользоваться им в полную силу, так что стоит разобраться в данном вопросе до того, как выбирать этот метода получения недвижимости. 

Суть вопроса

Дарственная на недвижимость такого рода подразумевает, что в довесок к приобретаемой квартире новый собственник получает целый ряд ограничений на ее использование. В большинстве случаев речь идет о долговых обязательствах прежних владельцев, претензий о стороны государственных учреждений, компаний и отдельных лиц.

Большинство экспертов и юристов рекомендуют всеми силами избегать таких сделок — согласие на взятие на свои плечи обременения часто выливается в многие месяцы и даже годы судебных разбирательств. Но если другого способа нет, то нужно изучить все способы получения такого жилья:

Аренда — когда при пользовании жилыми помещениями на съемной квартире можно только пользоваться ими временно, а посягательство на владение является уже нарушением прав владельцев. Дарение жилья — обычно налагается обременение, чтобы новый владелец не мог совершить с квартирой ряд действий (продать, обменять и т. п.). Опекунство — при наличии несовершеннолетних собственников жилье становится не так просто продать, а также подарить. Доверительное управление — по условиям договора жильем можно пользоваться в течение определенного срока, но выплата долгов ложится на владельца, а не пользователя. Пожизненная рента — квартиру нельзя получить, пока жив его прежний владелец, которого покупатель обязан содержать. Арест имущества — в случае долгов, совершения серьезных преступлений и т. п. Культурное наследие — памятники истории и культуры нельзя продавать, дарить, а также менять их внешний вид. Ипотека — наиболее частый случай обременения. Пока собственник не выплатит банку полную стоимость кредита, квартира находится в собственности банка, распоряжаться ею полностью нельзя.

Как и что

Какой бы ни была причина обременения, следует понимать, что это важное обязательство, которое берет на себя новый собственник жилья. Все условия пользования такой недвижимостью необходимо прописывать документально, а также заверять у нотариуса.

Минусов у сделок с обременением больше, чем плюсов. Кроме того, многие соглашаются на обременение, не зная, что снять его чаще всего невозможно. Обязанности сторон:

дарение возможно только от непосредственного собственника; покупатель должен иметь всю информацию об обременении; прозрачность по закону.

Важно помнить

Заключить сделку дарения можно как с составлением договора между двумя сторонами о передаче жилья на безвозмездной основе, но с условием наличия ряда проблем, так и при передаче арестованного или ипотечного жилья.

Второй вариант наиболее распространен как на Западе, так и в России, и обычно касается жилья в новостройках. Покупатели берут квартиру в ипотеку, а позже собираются улучшить жилищные условия, продав ее, а обязательства по выплате оставшейся по кредиту суммы передают новым владельцам.

Оформление дарственных можно сделать как при помощи юристов, так и самостоятельно, но эксперты настоятельно рекомендуют заверять все нотариально, чтобы не возникло проблем в будущем. Надо помнить, что многие владельцы используют мошеннические схемы, чтобы заставить покупателя выплатить свои долги, а позже признать договор недействительным. Кроме того, арестованное имущество могут конфисковать или изъять, и тогда вся сделка вовсе не будет иметь смысла.

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