Строительные работы в холодное время года

Наступает зима, а вместе с нею приходят холода и непогода. Большинство дачников прощаются на этот период со своей загородной собственностью, проводят необходимые мероприятия по ее уборке и последующей консервации, подготавливают сад и огород к предстоящим морозам. Однако бывают такие ситуации, когда строительные работы не удается завершить летом, но и приостановить их на некоторое время тоже не представляется возможным. Тогда приходится действовать в сложных климатических условиях. О том, как правильно выполнять строительные работы при отрицательных температурах, вы узнаете из нашей сегодняшней статьи.

Конечно, если есть такая возможность, то от строительных работ в зимний период лучше отказаться. Экстремальные погодные условия накладывают свои ограничения практически на все виды деятельности. Во-первых, существенно снижается производительность, так как исполнителям требуется дополнительное время на обогрев и поддержание сил, во-вторых, уходит значительно больше времени на любые работы, начиная от подготовки грунта и заканчивая добавлением в строительно-ремонтные составы специальных компонентов, которые придают им прочности и предупреждают их застывание и промерзание.

Есть ряд работ, проведение которых зимой представляется нецелесообразным, а порой так и вообще бессмысленным. К ним относятся:

— работы с грунтом;

— отделочные штукатурные работы фасада;

— отделочные работы «мокрого» типа внутри дома.

Работы с грунтом не принято проводить зимой ввиду полной непредсказуемости его поведения. Весной, когда станет тепло, и почва начнет оттаивать, здание может дать сильную и неравномерную усадку, вплоть до обрушения возведенных конструкций. Что касается отделочных штукатурных работ фасада, то даже при добавлении специальных пластифицирующих добавок качество финишного покрытия будет низким, а срок его эксплуатации весьма недолгим. То же самое касается и отделочных работ «мокрого» типа внутри дома: для того, чтобы их выполнить качественно, требуется плюсовая температура.

Впрочем, некоторые достоинства в проведении работ в зимний период всё же есть. Например, стоимость строительных материалов несколько снижается, равно как и цены на услуги специалистов в данной области.

К тому же существуют стройматериалы, которые можно применять как летом, так и зимой. Речь идет, в первую очередь, о термоблоках, которые представляют собой листы пенополистирола, скрепленные перемычками. Если залить в них бетон, то они будут играть роль несъемной опалубки, сохраняющей достаточное количество тепла для качественного отвердевания бетона. В холодный период можно устанавливать сборные стальные конструкции, при обработке которых используется сварка или надежные слесарные соединения. К ним относятся всевозможные ангары и гаражи. Допускается также использование оцилиндрованных бревен и сип-панелей.

Работа с бетоном в зимний период

Если у вас возникла необходимость работать в зимний период с бетоном, то следует помнить о том, что для его правильного созревания требуется плюсовая температура и достаточное количество влаги. Как правило, речь идет о возведении фундамента. Это наиболее важная часть будущего строения, поэтому к ее подготовке следует отнестись очень внимательно. Чтобы бетон не терял своих свойств после заливки основания, в приготавливаемую смесь добавляют специальные компоненты, придающие ей морозостойкие качества. Добавки могут быть разными. Их выбирают исходя из стоящих перед вами задач и установившейся температуры на улице.

Поспособствовать «согреву» бетонной смеси поможет также специальный укрывочный материал. Он должен быть весьма плотным, без прорех и иных дефектов. Лучше всего воспользоваться брезентом, который следует положить сверху на доски, лежащие на созданной конструкции. Обязательно нагрейте пространство между бетонным основанием и натянутой тканью. Иногда в качестве альтернативы используют особую прогревочную станцию, которая осуществляет электропрогрев фундамента. Стоит такой агрегат весьма дорого, поэтому его довольно редко применяют.

Работа с кирпичом в зимний период

Если вы работаете с кирпичом (или с древесиной, газобетоном, пеноблоками), то хранить его следует только под защитным навесом, чтобы не допустить его разрушения. Кирпичная кладка требует применения раствора, который будет не только соединять блоки между собой, но и помогать распределять нагрузку. Чтобы раствор получился качественным, в него нужно добавить специальные «присадки». Перед их покупкой обязательно изучите инструкцию: некоторые из них будут сохранять свои свойства при температуре не ниже -15 градусов (нитрат натрия, хлорид натрия, хлорид кальция). Если вы проводите строительные работы в погодных условиях от -15 до -25 градусов, то нужно приобрести поташ (углекислый калий). Если же температура на улице не опускается ниже -5 градусов, то в раствор можно просто добавить жидкого мыла — не более 10 % от объема воды в нем.

И еще одно важное примечание: как только вы завершите работы по кладке кирпича в течение светового дня, укройте получившееся сооружение теплоотражающим материалом.

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