Утеплитель для пола по бетону: свойства и характеристики

Бетон — пожалуй, самый популярный материал, из которого принято делать полы. Причем речь идет не только о производственных площадках, но и о частных домах, и об обычных квартирах, находящихся в городских многоэтажках. Правильно выполненная стяжка позволяет получить ровное и прочное основание с длительным сроком эксплуатации. Однако такое основание обязательно требует наличие утеплителя, особенно если речь идет о помещениях, расположенных на первом этаже. Правильно подобранный материал способен не только сохранять тепло, но и помогает блокировать лишние шумы, выступая в качестве звукоизоляции.

Выбор утеплителей для бетонных полов, имеющийся в специализированных магазинах, весьма обширен. В наличии есть как традиционные материалы, так и новые современные разработки. Перед совершением покупки нужно внимательно подойти к анализу свойств, качеств и характеристик каждого из них.

Итак, утеплители для бетонных полов можно условно разделить на три большие группы:

— утеплители синтетические;

— утеплители натуральные;

— утеплители смешанного типа.

Самая высокая стоимость у натуральных утеплителей, потому что их производят из природных составляющих. Они экологичны, и, соответственно, безопасны для здоровья человека. Но следует помнить также о том, что благодаря современным технологиям другие виды материалов тоже весьма качественны и могут использоваться без всяких опасений.

Синтетические утеплители

В данную группу материалов входят пенополистирол, пенополиуретан, пенополиэтилен и полистиролбетон.

Пенополистирол довольно часто используется в качестве утеплителя бетонных полов. Он подразделяется на два типа — обычный пенопласт и пенополистирол экструдированный. У них одинаковый состав, но различаются способы изготовления и, соответственно, свойства. Пенопласт является более дешевым, но при этом и менее качественным материалом. Он выпускается в виде ровных плит, которые приходится монтировать стык в стык, из-за чего неизбежно образуются визуально заметные швы. Экструдированный пенополистирол считается более прочным и надежным. В большинстве случаев он оснащается замками по типу «шип-паз», что позволяет укладывать его под бетонное основание и получать ровное бесшовное покрытие, без зазоров.

Пенополистирол обоих видов обладает следующими достоинствами:

— легкий вес заготовок;

— низкая теплопроводность;

— материал не боится грибков и плесени;

— он прост в монтаже.

Из недостатков стоит отметить способность пенополистирола разрушаться под воздействием ультрафиолета, его токсичность при нагревании свыше 30 С и высокую степень горючести.

Пенополиуретан обладает весьма низкой теплопроводностью, и именно поэтому является одним из лучших утеплителей, причем, использовать его можно как внутри зданий, так и для обшивки фасадов. На поверхность его наносят обычно путем напыления, конструкцию он не утяжеляет. Использовать его можно не только на горизонтальных, но и на вертикальных поверхностях. Монтаж проходит в сжатые сроки.

Как и любой другой материал, пенополиуретан имеет и недостатки. Он горюч, боится ультрафиолета, стоит довольно дорого, монтаж осуществляется при помощи специального оборудования.

Пенополиэтилен является недорогим и весьма практичным материалом для утепления. Выпускается с нанесенным с одной или с двух сторон тонким слоем алюминия. Его часто используют в том случае, когда монтируют систему обогрева «теплый пол».

Полистиролбетон выпускается в виде сухих смесей или плит. Отличается небольшим весом, высокими качественными характеристиками, влагостойкостью, долговечностью.

Натуральные утеплители

Натуральные утеплители представлены следующими материалами: эковата, керамзит, пеностекло, пробковые плиты.

Эковата является отличным утеплителем, изготавливается из целлюлозы. Обладает огнестойкостью и устойчивостью по отношению к грибкам и плесени. На поверхность наносится двумя способами: мокрым и сухим. Керамзит имеет длительную историю использования. По своим теплопроводным свойствам он уступает более современным материалам, но это не мешает ему быть довольно популярным среди пользователей. Он отличается влагостойкостью, малым весом, не боится химических и биологических воздействий, гипоаллергенен. Пеностекло по характеристикам аналогично керамзиту. Этот материал выпускается в виде гранул и плит. Утеплители из пробки обладают отличными показателями, но имеют весьма высокую стоимость. Выпускаются в виде плит, полотен и листов.

Утеплители смешанного типа

Данные материалы представляют собой некий симбиоз из искусственных и натуральных компонентов. К ним относят стекловату, каменную вату, утеплители из гипсоволокна и древесного волокна.

При выборе утеплителя для пола по бетону руководствуйтесь не только ценами на материал, но и его важными техническими характеристиками, тогда в вашем доме всегда будет тепло и комфортно.

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